Showing posts from November, 2022

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | Correlation between in-vitro and in-vivo Studies based on Pharmacokinetic Considerations

  Correlation between  in-vitro  and  in-vivo  Studies based on Pharmacokinetic Considerations Abstract Whenever  in-vitro  experiments precede the  in-vivo  studies of a new drug, an effort is being made to transform the generated data into parameters (mainly dosing regimen) that can optimize the in-life stage and reduce the number of animals that might be required. The present manuscript suggests a method for such a transformation, using general pharmacokinetic principles and, if required, assisted by data from the literature. Keywords:  Clearance, Volume of Distribution, Half-Life Introduction Preclinical studies of new compounds are often preceded by  in-vitro  experiments, aiming at preliminary examination of the proposed new drug, as well as generating vital data for optimal design of the  in-vivo  studies, with no affliction to living animals. However, the translation of the  in-vitro  data to in-life parameters is often obscure and confusing. in-vitro  Testing The  in-vitro  st

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | A New Perspective on Laboratory Proficiency Testing

  A New Perspective on Laboratory Proficiency Testing Introduction Accreditation bodies and Regulatory agencies require the participation of clinical laboratories in periodic External Quality Assurance (EQA) programs as a means of providing an objective evidence of the quality of testing of patients’ specimens [ 1 ,  2 ]. The overall purpose of EQA is for identification of shortfalls in the total testing system of the laboratories for improvement and maintenance of quality. In addition to elucidating competencies of testing personnel, participation in periodic inter-laboratory comparability and proficiency testing programs may reveal gradual or sudden changes in performance of the testing system that a laboratory may be unaware of. Participation in an inter-laboratory comparability and proficiency testing programs can therefore help to verify the reliability and quality of testing as a means of improvement and maintenance of quality assurance. Presentation Proficiency testing typically

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | The Evolution of DNA Extraction Methods

  The Evolution of DNA Extraction Methods Abstract Since the first DNA extraction performed by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, scientists have made extraordinary progress in designing extraction methods that are more reliable, easier and faster to perform, more cost-effective and produce a higher yield. The classic liquid-liquid DNA extraction method involves the use of organic and inorganic reagents such as phenol-chloroform which pose a toxic threat to humans. Many newer techniques are now based on physical extraction, which has significantly contributed to developing simpler methods for DNA handling, such as extraction using magnetic beads and cellulose-based filter paper. With the advent of gene-editing and personalized medicine, there has been an increase in the demand for reliable and efficient DNA isolation methods that can yield adequate quantities of high-quality DNA with minimal impurities. The current review addresses the evolution of different DNA extraction techniques from sol

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | Methadone Intoxication and Death is a New Disaster

  Methadone Intoxication and Death is a New Disaster Introduction Methadone was synthesized in Germany from 1937 to 1939 [ 1 ,  2 ] and approved in the United States in 1947. [ 1 ] Methadone is the most effectiveness which is used in OMT programs [ 2 ] and was on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) List of Essential Medicines [ 1 ,  3 ,  4 ,  5 ,  6 ]. Methadone treatment programs has been recommended 80 mg daily dose and 0.4 mg/L blood concentration which is very good. [ 6 ,  7 ,  8 ] The effects of methadone were 8 to 36 hours [ 1 ,  3 ]. The EDDP or 2-ethylidene-1, 5-dimethyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrrolidine, the principle metabolite of methadone, is one of evidence to diagnose the cause of death [ 9 ]. The mean blood concentration ratio of methadone to EDDP was 13.6:1 [ 10 ]. Respiratory failure, prolonged QT interval, cardiac arrhythmia are caused of death [ 1 ,  11 ,  12 ]. Benzodiazepines, especially Alprazolam, was the most common combined drugs in methadone intoxication and death [