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Biomedical Science and Research Journals | Free Science from Dogma. or: How the “Pseudogene” Hampered Scientific Progress

  Free Science from Dogma. or: How the “Pseudogene” Hampered Scientific Progress Opinion That science and ideologically chosen terminology don’t go very well together is the tacit message of a recent article in Nature, which critisized the pseudogene concept [1]. The article argues that the old idea that pseudogenes are functionless is wrong. There is now ample evidence, and more is rapidly accumulating that pseudogenes fulfill a whole series of extremely important biological functions. They play a role in the production of proteins that are important for the embryonic development of living beings. They control the production of proteins by causing small changes in the structure of DNA. What was originally thought of as pseudogenes turn out to be the genes specifying non-coding RNAs, which regulate the activity and production of proteins from thousands of genes. They are the operation system of the genome. Knowing their functions is knowing a lot more about cancers and diseases. “Pseud

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | The Reality of The New Corona Virus (N Co V-2019) Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

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  The Reality of The New Corona Virus (N Co V-2019) Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Abstract Corona virus is one of the fiercest viruses that infect the upper respiratory tract and lead to death. Coronavirus infection severity ranges from the common cold to pneumonia. Corona virus spread recently, as it was in the past transmitted from animal to animal, then the virus evolved to transfer from animal to animal, and recently the virus moved from human to human. The World Health Organization has taken important guideline rules to keep people from infection with the virus and in the case of infection, reduce symptoms and prevent disease progression, and then keep people from rising mortality. And there is no need for the terrible panic that emerged recently from the risk of infection with the virus, as it can be controlled through following healthy habits in terms of washing hands, and eating vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins that help raise the immune system. Keywords:  Corona v

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | Targeting Cancer Through Autophagy With Β-Elemene and Puerarin

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  Targeting Cancer Through Autophagy With Β-Elemene and Puerarin Abstract Cancer remains the second foremost cause of mortality around the world; therefore immediate development of highly effective and safe therapy is important. Different therapies are used for cancer treatment, but natural products (NPs) are considered more effective and less toxic. β-elemene (ELE) and Puerarin are the important NPs for the treatment of different cancers. Recently, its anticancer mechanisms through autophagy have been reported, therefore we summarized its molecular mechanisms. This review may serve as the basis for the future research on these NPs against cancer through autophagy. Keywords:  Natural products; β-elemene; Puerarin; Autophagy Introduction Cancer remains the second foremost cause of mortality around the world; therefore immediate development of highly effective and safe therapy is important [1,2]. Natural products (NPs) are used widely in the effective treatment due to high success rate a

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | Correlation between in-vitro and in-vivo Studies based on Pharmacokinetic Considerations

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  Correlation between  in-vitro  and  in-vivo  Studies based on Pharmacokinetic Considerations Abstract Whenever  in-vitro  experiments precede the  in-vivo  studies of a new drug, an effort is being made to transform the generated data into parameters (mainly dosing regimen) that can optimize the in-life stage and reduce the number of animals that might be required. The present manuscript suggests a method for such a transformation, using general pharmacokinetic principles and, if required, assisted by data from the literature. Keywords:  Clearance, Volume of Distribution, Half-Life Introduction Preclinical studies of new compounds are often preceded by  in-vitro  experiments, aiming at preliminary examination of the proposed new drug, as well as generating vital data for optimal design of the  in-vivo  studies, with no affliction to living animals. However, the translation of the  in-vitro  data to in-life parameters is often obscure and confusing. in-vitro  Testing The  in-vitro  st

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | A New Perspective on Laboratory Proficiency Testing

  A New Perspective on Laboratory Proficiency Testing Introduction Accreditation bodies and Regulatory agencies require the participation of clinical laboratories in periodic External Quality Assurance (EQA) programs as a means of providing an objective evidence of the quality of testing of patients’ specimens [ 1 ,  2 ]. The overall purpose of EQA is for identification of shortfalls in the total testing system of the laboratories for improvement and maintenance of quality. In addition to elucidating competencies of testing personnel, participation in periodic inter-laboratory comparability and proficiency testing programs may reveal gradual or sudden changes in performance of the testing system that a laboratory may be unaware of. Participation in an inter-laboratory comparability and proficiency testing programs can therefore help to verify the reliability and quality of testing as a means of improvement and maintenance of quality assurance. Presentation Proficiency testing typically

Biomedical Science and Research Journals | The Evolution of DNA Extraction Methods

  The Evolution of DNA Extraction Methods Abstract Since the first DNA extraction performed by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, scientists have made extraordinary progress in designing extraction methods that are more reliable, easier and faster to perform, more cost-effective and produce a higher yield. The classic liquid-liquid DNA extraction method involves the use of organic and inorganic reagents such as phenol-chloroform which pose a toxic threat to humans. Many newer techniques are now based on physical extraction, which has significantly contributed to developing simpler methods for DNA handling, such as extraction using magnetic beads and cellulose-based filter paper. With the advent of gene-editing and personalized medicine, there has been an increase in the demand for reliable and efficient DNA isolation methods that can yield adequate quantities of high-quality DNA with minimal impurities. The current review addresses the evolution of different DNA extraction techniques from sol