Biomedical Scinece and Research Journals ! Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skin and Ocular Surface Disease: An Interdisciplinary Review

Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that are the power-house of the cell. However, we now see that they play an ever-growing role in health, disease and aging of the skin. Not only does thee mitochondria produce the most reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, but it affects major inflammatory and dysplastic processes. We have reviewed the literature of mitochondrial dysfunction and ocular surface disease. We have presented syndromes and non-syndromic conditions where mitochondrial dysfunction affects ocular surface health and dry eye, dry keratoconjunctivitis.

Mitochondria are sub-cellular organelles with DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids and makes only 13 proteins, a noncoding regulatory D-Loop, 2rRNA and 22 tRNAs, including genes for 13 oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) polypeptides, 22 tRNAs and two ribosomal RNAs, while some of the OXPHOS elements are encoded by nuclear DNA [2]. The function of mitochondria is energy (ATP) formation, heme synthesis, calcium homeostasis, cell signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, cell cycling, and cellular growth.


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